Scientific knowledge of ancient Indians.

There are thousands new things that people still don’t know yet. People from all over the world think that they contribute their efforts to find origin of everything. So is important knowledge in modern sciencesdiscovered by ancient Indians?  

1. Age of Earth


The age of the Earth is estimated at a little over 4.5 billion years.Working this out was a difficult problem to solve. For most of human history, the basic facts about the planet were unknown. The problem was tackled by Earth scientists in the twentieth century.
Modern estimates are based on radioactive dating methods. The oldest minerals on Earth – small crystals of zircon from the Jack Hills of Western Australia – are at least 4.4 billion years old.
 
In a famous Indian literary work called Manusmriti, the calculation of the age of the Earth is described in two verses praising Brahma's longevity. (Brahma is the god of creation in Hinduism).  Professor Arthur Holmes, a geologist and professor at Durham University, said: "Many ancient sages tried to predict the age of the world. ancient Hindu study of the concepts of time and origin of the earth in the sacred book Manuscript. "

2. Trigonometry and optics

What is Trigonometry?The branch of mathematics dealing with the relations of the sides and angles of triangles and with relevant functions of any angles.
What is optics?It is the branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behavior of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light.
 
Varahamihira, the astronomer, mathematician and astrologer of the fifth century, defined the concepts of refraction and reflex. He also defined the algebraic properties of zeroes as well as negative numbers. The world of debt India has a tremendous amount of knowledge in the field of mathematics and physics right from the very early days.

3. Discover gravity


Gravity is the force by which a planet or other body draws objects toward its center. The force of gravity keeps all of the planets in orbit around the sun.What else does gravity do?
Why do you land on the ground when you jump up instead of floating off into space? Why do things fall down when you throw them or drop them? The answer is gravity: an invisible force that pulls objects toward each other. Earth's gravity is what keeps you on the ground and what makes things fall.
 
The legendary Vedas of India are over 5,000 years old. And in this ancient business there are verses that suggest that gravity links the universe together and that the Sun is the center of the universe. The Vedas existed for thousands of years as Newton and Copernicus as well as their discoveries came into being.

4. Pythagoras Theorem


A long time ago, a Greek mathematician named Pythagoras discovered an interesting property about right triangles: the sum of the squares of the lengths of each of the triangle’s legs is the same as the square of the length of the triangle’s hypotenuse. This property—which has many applications in science, art, engineering, and architecture—is now called the Pythagorean Theorem.
 
The ancient Indian mathematician Baudhayana wrote a theorem analogous to the Pythagorean theorem in Baudhayana Sulbassutra in 800 BC. This book is one of the oldest books on advanced mathematics left over.  Many historians have suggested that Pythagoras went to many parts of the world and even visited India. Then perhaps he learned the mathematical knowledge from this place, including Pythagoras theorem.  
In a work written by Kim Plofker, professor of mathematics at Brown University, "The mathematical theories of sound as Pythagoras have been applied in the construction of pillars and buildings in India. From ancient times, long before the Greek philosophers knew them. "  

5. Number 0


0 (zero) is both a number and a numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. As a number, zero means nothing—an absence of other values. It plays a central role in mathematics as the identity element of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures.
As a digit, zero is used as a placeholder in place value systems. Historically, it was the last digit to come into use. In the English language, zero may also be called nil when a number, o/oh when a numeral, and nought/naught in either context.

 
The Arabic numerals and decimal systems are all native to India. After a long time in secrecy, they were popularized by the Arabs and gradually spread to the west. Aryabhata is the ancient mathematician who is said to have discovered the number zero and the decimal system. In addition, he created the exponentiation and exponentiation 3.

6. High quality steel


Stainless steels are notable for their corrosion resistance, which increases with increasing chromium content. Molybdenum additions increase corrosionresistance in reducing acids and against pitting attack in chloride solutions.
Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Thus stainless steels are used where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required.
 
In 200 BC, high-quality steel was produced in India through a technique known to Westerners as metallurgy.  William James Durant, a writer, historian, and philosopher wrote in his famous book, The Story of Civilization, states, "By the sixth century, the Hindus It is far superior to Europe in the field of industrial chemicals, and they are the master of distillation, sublimation, the production of metal salts, compounds and alloys. "  

7. The first university in the world


Around 800 AD, a large university in the Takshila area (commonly known as Taxila) was built in the northwestern part of India. At this time, the rest of the world is unaware of the existence of the university concept.  
Joseph Needham, a British scientist and historian, wrote: "When the soldiers of Alexander the Great went to the Taxila region in India in the fourth century BC, they found a university that had hundreds. This is where the three Vedas and the 18 achievements of Hinduism " With 68 subjects were taught at this university.
 
During that time, 10,500 students including those from Babylon, Greece, Syria, China and many more countries students are there. Experienced masters taught the vedas, languages, grammar, philosophy, medicine, surgery, archery, politics, warfare, astronomy, accounts, commerce, documentation, music, dance and other performing arts, futurology, the occult and mystical sciences, complex mathematical calculations.

 

HBF Wales housing crisis

A new report reveals Wales could face a housing crisis equal to or greater than in England unless urgent action is taken now.

A major new report reveals Wales is set to suffer a housing crisis even more acute than in the rest of the UK.

The report reveals:

· Wales has the oldest housing stock of any Western European nation, much of which is in very poor condition

· rates of housebuilding are so low that today’s new homes will have to last more than 2,000 years before their turn for replacement

· the backlog of unmet housing need has already reached 33,000, whilst four per cent too few homes are being built each year to meet the projected growth in the number of households

· real needs are probably much greater when accounting for areas of low demand resulting from deteriorating or derelict stock

The report 'Building Success: The economic role of new housing in Wales' follows the HBF’s highly influential report of 2002, 'Building a Crisis', which outlined the scale of England’s housing undersupply and compelled the government to put housing at the top of its agenda.

The treasury and the office of the deputy prime minister have now accepted there is a housing crisis in England and the planning system is undergoing major reform to increase housing provision in the south and regenerate communities in the Midlands and the north.

However, rocketing house prices in Wales strongly suggested it was beginning to experience similar problems to the rest of the UK. This report, the first of its kind, confirms those fears. Robert Ashmead, chief executive of the House Builders Federation, said: “All the signs are that, without effective action taken now, Wales is heading for a housing crisis equal to or possibly worse than in the rest of the UK.

“In addition, it faces extra problems of having an exceptionally old housing stock, much of which is in such poor condition that it is close to being unmarketable. This prompts outward migration and the ensuing economic and social decline of once thriving communities.

“We are urging the Welsh Assembly that unless urgent action is taken, the country’s housing crisis will have severe consequences on the future growth and prosperity of the country as a whole.

“The assembly’s aspiration is that within a generation, the standard of living in Wales will match that of the UK as a whole, whilst over the next decade the target is to raise per capita Gross Domestic Product from 80% to 90% of the UK average. Addressing the housing crisis is fundamental to achieving these goals.”

Specific recommendations to the assembly, include:

· to adopt a formal policy position recognising the need for adequate new housing provision

· to formulate a housing strategy to cater for areas of economic growth and to tackle areas of low demand

· to monitor housing completions to ensure regional housing targets are met

· to ensure that a broad mix of house types are provided to meet all forms of demand

The report reveals that more than one-third of Welsh homes are pre-1919 with a further 12% built between the First and Second World Wars. A study in 1998 estimated 8.5% of the Welsh housing stock was classified as “unfit” with a total repair bill of more than Ł1 billion.

Results from the 2001 census show a vacancy rate of 1 in 25 with another 1 in 100 classified as second homes.

Ashmead added: “In numerical terms alone, the undersupply of housing in Wales is not yet as acute as in England but when the age and condition of the stock is taken into account, the crisis is perhaps even more serious than across the border.”

Ends

Editors’ Notes

The report 'Building Success: The economic role Of new housing In Wales' will be launched at an all-day conference shared with The Bevan Foundation on Tuesday 20 January 2004 at the Heritage Park Hotel, Trehafod, Pontypridd. Huw Lewis, deputy minister for communities, will be speaking at the conference.

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